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Static Assets in `public`

Next.js can serve static files, like images, under a folder called public in the root directory. Files inside public can then be referenced by your code starting from the base URL (/).

For example, the file public/avatars/me.png can be viewed by visiting the /avatars/me.png path. The code to display that image might look like:

import Image from 'next/image'
export function Avatar({ id, alt }) {
  return <Image src={`/avatars/${id}.png`} alt={alt} width="64" height="64" />
export function AvatarOfMe() {
  return <Avatar id="me" alt="A portrait of me" />


Next.js cannot safely cache assets in the public folder because they may change. The default caching headers applied are:

Cache-Control: public, max-age=0

Robots, Favicons, and others

For static metadata files, such as robots.txt, favicon.ico, etc, you should use special metadata files inside the app folder.

Good to know:

  • The directory must be named public. The name cannot be changed and it's the only directory used to serve static assets.
  • Only assets that are in the public directory at build time will be served by Next.js. Files added at request time won't be available. We recommend using a third-party service like Vercel Blob for persistent file storage.